Dr. Subhash Sharma






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[ Researchers & Practitioners' Corner ]


Subhash Sharma, 'Managerial Discretion and Organizational Slack: A Commentary'. Vikalpa. Vol.16, No.2, April-June 1991, pp.33-40: The central focus of this paper is to analyze some important theoretical frameworks for understanding the phenomenon of managerial discretionary behaviour. The study suggests that the political-economy framework is useful in gaining insights into the modalities of managerial discretionary behaviour. Author further tries to decipher the implications of managerial discretion for explaining organizational slack.


Subhash Sharma. 'New Age Management'. Ahmedabad Management Association (AMA) News. Vol.19, No.8, August 1991, pp.2-3: We live in an age in which there is a failure of 'isms' or serious doubts have been raised about them. Accordingly, paper suggests the need for new theories and concepts of management in the new age. Paper presents a discussion on OSHA model, Theory K and Indianism as foundation for development of Indian concepts in management. These models were subsequently elaborated in author's book, Management in New Age: Western Windows Eastern Doors (1996) as well as in journal articles.


Subhash Sharma, 'Institutional Building & Institutional Regeneration: Frameworks for Action', Indian Journal of Training & Development, April - March 1992, pp.10-22: This paper reviews the models of management education in India and outlines the critical factors in institution building. It also presents some models of institution building. Important aspects of institution building include clarity of mission and agenda setting, identification of strategic thrust areas, independence in operations, network building and task accomplishing.


Subhash Sharma, Decision Styles: Conceptual Models and An Empirical Study of IAS Officers, Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol.XXXVII, No.2, April - June 1992, pp.95-108: This paper presents a review of various existing conceptual frameworks to study the decision styles of administrators and managers. These frameworks are compared with Rowe's decision style model. A group of IAS officers with several years of experience was administered Rowe's decision style inventory. Empirical results based on this point to the presence of four types of bureaucrats in Indian bureaucracy viz. Behavioural Types, Analytical Types, Conceptual Types and Bureaucratic - Procedural Types.


Subhash Sharma. 'Management Mantras'. Ahmedabad Management Association (AMA) News. Vol.20, No.6, June 1992, pp.5-6: Mantras can be defined as codified and condensed expressions that convey philosophical and conceptual ideas. Mantras have a considerable practical vitality as they can communicate complex idea in nutshell. Paper presents a discussion on author's various management mantras such as OSHA model, 'MBA' model of decision making, 'MAP' (Mans-Anna-Prana), Indianism as Infinity & Diversity in Absolute. These models found their subsequent expansion in author's book Management in New Age: Western Windows Eastern Doors (1996) and several journal articles.


Subhash Sharma, & Arvind Singhal, ‘Modern Management Theories: Promise or Peril?’, Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol.29, No.1, January - March 1993, pp.20-28: This paper provides a taxonomy to classify the existing management theories and analyses their normatic contents. It discovers that the emphasis of many modern management theories is on the 'animalistic' aspect of human nature. An alternative post-modern system emphasizing humanistic values is suggested and it is argued that management practice should be based on theories that promote humanistic values. Paper also presents a 'WEPT' (Wealth, Ethics, Pleasure, Transcendence) model with a view to seek a harmonic balance between the four components of WEPT so as to avoid mal-development of societies.

Subhash Sharma, ‘Inspirational Motivation: A New Framework of Motivation’, in Ancient Indian Wisdom for Motivation, Ahmedabad Management Association, 1993, pp.95-109: This paper presents the concept of inspirational motivation as well as alternative theory of 'basket of needs' to Maslow's theory of hierarchy of needs'. It suggests that the concept of basket of needs takes out the hierarchy bias inherent in Maslow's conceptualization. Implicit in basket of needs concept is the greater autonomy in individuals. Drawing upon the Indian Panchkosha theory, this paper conceptualizes the inspirational motivation as an impulse that can pierce through the various koshas and thereby release our latent energy.

Subhash Sharma, ‘Management Ideas in Arthasastra’, Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol.40, No.2, April - June 1994, pp.165-182: Hailed as one of the most influential and important books on the art of statecraft and public administration, most commentaries on Arthasastra highlight its political, diplomatic and administrative insights. Exploring it from management ideas viewpoint, this paper finds it as a source book for a number of ideas in management and administration. This paper translates in contemporary language, relevant ideas from the Arthasastra and presents them in an analytical format understandable to contemporary managers. Through such illustrations it also suggests that for all practical purposes, Arthasastra can be considered a foundational book for managers and leaders.


Subhash Sharma, ‘Western Windows Eastern Doors: Frameworks for Self-Development’, in 'Ancient Indian Wisdom for Self-Development', Ahmedabad Management Association, Ahmedabad and Sankara Vidya Kendra, New Delhi, June 1995, pp.20-31: Combining the Eastern and Western strands of thought, this paper presents a number of frameworks for self development. It presents the concept of Human Quality Grid to understand various management styles and a negergy - synergy grid as an analytical framework to the use of power in organizations. An Eastern 'T-A' (Thought - Action) framework is presented to understand the nature of managerial actions in organizations. A class - character framework is presented in its two dimensional perspective. Paper also highlights the characteristics of negative energy or negergy generators and synergy generators in organizations.


Subhash Sharma, ‘Towards Enlightened Leadership: Framework for Leadership and Management’, in 'Evolving Performing Organizations Through People: A Global Agenda', edited by K.B.Akhilesh, et. al.,New Age International Publishers, 1995, pp.209-214: This paper presents a four steps model of the enlightened leadership. Outlining the differences between a robot, a manager, a leaders and an enlightened leader, it points to the need for development of enlightened leadership in the organizational context. Enlightened leaders is visualized as a person who is driven by HOPE - Higher Order Purpose of Existence. Through vision and enlightenment such a person is able to see the sea changes and through devotion and action the person is able to effectively deal with the changing situations and crisis.


Subhash Sharma, ‘OSHA Model for Relationship Management’, Abhigyan, Spring 1995, pp.29-40: This paper presents the OSHA model as a general theory of human relationship management, OSHA summarizes the preferred order of the three gunas viz., the sattavik, rajasik and tamasik. OSHA as a short form of Om Shanti reveals a complete model of human being in terms of Oneness, Spiritualistic, Humanistic and Animalistic tendencies. The OSHA interaction matrix presented in this paper can be used as an analytical and diagnostic framework for improvement of individual, team and organizational effectiveness. It is suggested that OSHA model can be used as a framework for reconciling the 'man' with 'man', 'man' with nature, market with nature and 'man' and market with society.


Subhash Sharma, ‘Total Quality Of Management (TQOM): An Endological Basis for Human Values in Corporate Management’, Abhigyan, Summer 1996, pp.35-39 : In this paper, concept of Total Quality of Management (TQOM) with its endological roots in human values and business ethics has been proposed. Endology implies a study of end values and a study of means and ends as guiding principles for human actions. Hence, endological analysis implies an analysis of both means and ends as well as their effects on individual, society and organisations. An endo-analytic approach means an analysis of end values from the viewpoint of consequence effects. Because of its emphasis on positive values, endology provides a foundational premise for positive actions and positive management, thereby contributing to improvement in Total Quality Of Management (TQOM).


Subhash Sharma, ‘Forward Engineering of Public Institutions in Market Economy’, Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol.42, No.4, October - December 1996, pp.633-641: This paper proposes the concept of forward engineering as an envisioning process incorporating the idea of 'reversing the arrow of time'. It implies channelizing the collective intuitional wisdom. Paper suggests the technique of mind pooling for carrying out an exercise of forward engineering. Forward engineering involves creative envisioning and creative combination of the various parts of the whole like combining the broken pieces of the cup to arrive at a new art object. Paper presents a number of tools and techniques that can help in formulating a forward engineering plan for an organization.


Subhash Sharma, ‘CINE Matrix: A Framework for Strategic Scanning’, The Planters' Chronicle, Vol.92, No.3, March 1997, pp.133-138: CINE matrix is a conceptual framework for analysis of factors influencing a decision situation. Through classification of factors in the form of C-I-N-E factors, a better understanding of the situation emerges in the form of nature of actions required for self-empowerment. In CINE matrix, the letters C, I, N and E stand for the following; C: Controllable, I: Internal, N: Non-controllable, E: External. When this information is presented in a matrix form, we get a better picture of the decision situation.


Subhash Sharma, ‘Towards an Omnijective Theory for New Organizational Development’, Chinmaya Management Review, Vol.1, No.1, December 1997, pp.12-18: This paper presents a new approach to Organisation Development wherein an omnijective route to organisation development is suggested. Modernisation, humanisation and spiritualization of work places is emerging as a new paradigm to make work places conflict free and harmonic. Paper suggests that insights from Eastern philosophies could provide a foundational basis for developing a new organization development theory that would take a holistic view of the objective and subjective aspects in organisation development.


Subhash Sharma, ‘From Self - Actualization to SELF - Realization: Beyond the Selfish - Gene Syndrome’, Abhigyan, Vol.15, No.4, 1997, pp.59-63: This paper highlights the subtle differences between the self-actualisation and self-realisation. It presents a four step model of self-development combining the Western and Eastern approaches. The paper suggests the need to move beyond the selfish gene syndrome so that the corporate organisations become more eco-sensitive. It suggests that ‘enlightened collective interest’ represent the key towards developing enlightened corporate organisations for achieving holistic social and economic development.


Subhash Sharma, ‘Enlightened Leadership in Indian Ethos: The Way of the Theory K’, Management & Change, Vol.2, No.1, January - June 1998, pp.93-104: This paper elaborates the idea of theory K in the form of a combination approach to theories X, Y & Z. The metaphor of organization as a family constitutes the keynote of this combination approach which can be mathematically represented as K = X aY bZ c wherein co-efficients a, b and c indicate the intensity with which managers tend to use X, Y or Z style. Driving metaphor is suggested to indicate the matrix nature of the theory K wherein the attempt is to achieve proper matching between the managerial styles and situational requirements. Paper further presents an Indian model of enlightened leadership.


Subhash Sharma, ‘Social Discourse in a Globalized Era: Towards the Concept of Development Matrix’, Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol.44, No.3, July - September 1998, pp.328-338: In this paper, author argues for adoption of a development matrix as the basis for social discourse in a globalized era for a better understanding of the role of State. Conceptualising development matrix through an analysis of human activities in terms of their market and non-market contexts and modes of organisation in terms of corporate and non-corporate structures, the author presents his Vishwa model and the idea of Vishwanization as a new construct to meet challenges of globalisation. Admitting criticality of cultural setting and its diversity in a holistic developmental view of a society, he conceptualises Indian society as a matrix society, and suggests a paradigm shift from dialectical analysis of a society towards a matrix analysis. He also proposes the idea of dialectical intensity as a basis to understand complexity of a matrix society.


Subhash Sharma, ‘From Factors of Production to Factors of Creation: 'Best' Model as a Strategic Management Framework’, Abhigyan, Vol.16, No.4, October - December 1998, pp.43-47: This article presents the idea of the ‘BEST’ factors and their inter-play in the market context. Paper suggests a paradigm change from the ‘factors of production’ to ‘factors of creation’ and indicates that ‘BEST’ factors should be viewed in terms of factors of creation and value addition. Paper highlights the importance of ‘BEST’ model as a strategic management framework. It also suggests that organizations being socio-cultural systems, proper cultural climate is required for proper co-alignment and coalescing of the ‘BEST’ factors in organizational context.


Subhash Sharma, 'New Age Management for Competitive Advantage: The Metaphors of India Blend, Indica and Indian Management', Management & Change, Vol.3, No.1, January-June 1999, pp.1-14: This paper presents a four-way classification framework identifying the foundations of management theories and concepts. It further develops the idea of Indian management by providing illustrative Indian ideas in management. The paper highlights the emergence of 'India blend' and 'Indica' as new metaphors of Indian management in a new age of liberalization and globalization. As an illustration, the paper also draws upon an idea from the Arthashastra that has a lot of relevance in the field of strategic management. It argues that the future of Indian management as a distinct field of study would depend on the capacity of Indian managers to unleash Indian creativity. The idea of anti-benchmarking could help us in this direction.

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